Authors identified the currently used measures of frailty and sarcopenia in the adult spine surgery literature and evaluated their ability to predict postoperative outcomes including mortality, morbidity, in-hospital length of stay (LOS) and discharge disposition. They also ascertained which is the best clinical measure of frailty and sarcopenia in predicting outcome after spine surgery. In a number of distinct spinal surgery populations, frailty is predictive of AEs, mortality, in-hospital LOS and discharge disposition. Based on the current state of the literature, the effect of sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes is equivocal. A clarification regarding the relationship between spinal pathology, frailty, sarcopenia and how they interact to yield outcome was not provided. For risk stratification of patients having spinal surgery, potentially useful tools are frailty and sarcopenia.